Making sponge iron is a process in which iron ore masses (typically 5 mm -18 mm in size) with some dolomite coal are placed in a sloping rotary kiln. This operation takes about 12 hours in the presence of air. Before the products cool, they are magnetically separated and screened. This process requires the direct reduction of iron ore (removal of oxygen from the ore) to the solid state. For more information about World class sponge iron, visit our site.
Which country is the largest producer of sponge iron?
Iron, as a chemical element, is rarely found in pure form in nature. Iron is commonly found as an oxide in nature, but is also found in the form of carbonate, silicate, and iron sulfide. As mentioned, iron is found in nature in the form of iron ore. Iron ore is also composed of iron oxides and various impurities. Impurities in iron ore include silicon oxide, calcium carbonate, sulfur, manganese, phosphorus compounds, and… At first, various operations such as crushing and concentrating are performed on iron ore to turn it into sponge iron in later stages.
To make sponge iron, reduction of iron ore is without melting and crude iron is produced from this type of furnace. Known as little sponge iron. Sponge iron contains about 29 to 69 percent pure iron and is used to make steel in later stages. To produce crude iron by direct reduction to concentrated iron ore, limestone, bentonite, smelting aids, ferroalloys and scrap iron are required. Raw material preparation units are used to produce pellets from a mixture of concentrated iron ores. To make sponge iron by direct reduction methods, natural gas is used for reduction and heat supply.
Methane gas is mostly used for this purpose, which is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen in three reduction units in different ways, with a sufficient amount of water vapor or exhaust gas from regeneration furnaces containing water vapor and carbon dioxide. In direct reduction units, iron ore pellets are regenerated by gases resulting from the partial oxidation of natural gas by various methods such as Profer or Midrex or HYL. In the Midrex method, the iron ore pellets are cooked and sieved and transported by conveyor to the tank above the furnace. As a result, toxic and combustible regenerative gas leaks are prevented in the furnace.
The iron ore pellets enter the furnace and are continuously reduced by the reducing gas at a temperature of approximately 670 ° C. The sponge iron at the bottom of the furnace is cooled with cooling gas to about 60 ° C and removed from the furnace. For more information about sponge iron process, visit our site.
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